Impact of Nanoparticulates from Traffic Emissions on Viral Lung Infection

Nanoparticle exposure reactivates latent herpesvirus and restores a signature of acute infection (19 page pdf, Christine Sattler, Franco Moritz, Shanze Chen, Beatrix Steer, David Kutschke, Martin Irmler, Johannes Beckers, Oliver Eickelberg, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Heiko Adler and Tobias Stoeger, Particle and Fibre Toxicology, Jan. 10, 2017)

Also discussed here: Nanoparticle exposure can awaken dormant viruses in the lungs (ScienceDaily, Jan. 17, 2017)

Today we review a lab experiment on cells in mice that examined the impact of exposure to nanoparticles (NP). Results indicate that these nanoparticles can “reawaken” latent herpes viruses in the lung by weakening the immune system and allowing viruses to invade the host cell. The researchers would like to examine if these results can be transferred to humans and if so, if exposure to emissions from combustion and traffic-related emissions suggest another serious impact.

nanoparticles-and-virus

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Kidney Disease and Air Pollution

Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Increased Risk of Membranous Nephropathy in China (Abstract, Xin Xu, Guobao Wang, Nan Chen, Tao Lu*, Sheng Nie*, Gang Xu, Ping Zhang§, Yang Luo, Yongping Wang*, Xiaobin Wang, Joel Schwartz**, Jian Geng††‡‡ and Fan Fan Hou, Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, Jun. 30, 2016)

Also discussed here: Air pollution linked to increased rates of kidney disease – Regions in China with high levels of fine particulate air pollution have elevated rates of membranous nephropathy (Science Daily, Jun. 30, 2016)

Today we review research on the impact of particulate matter (average annual PM2.5 in the range 6 to 114 μg/m3) on the risk of developing membranous nephropathy (MN), an immune disorder of the kidneys that can lead to kidney failure. Results showed that MN increased 13% over in the eleven year period.

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Air Pollution – a Leading Risk Factor for Strokes

Global burden of stroke and risk factors in 188 countries, during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (Abstract, Valery L Feigin, Gregory A Roth, Mohsen Naghavi, Priya Parmar, Rita Krishnamurthi, Sumeet Chugh,George A Mensah, Bo Norrving, Ivy Shiue, Marie Ng, Kara Estep, Kelly Cercy, Christopher J L Murray, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, The Lancet, Jun. 9, 2016)

Also discussed here: For the first time, air pollution emerges as a leading risk factor for stroke worldwide (Science Daily, Jun. 9, 2016)

Today we review research into 17 risk factors for stroke which affects 15 million people each year though death (6 million) or permanently disability (5 million) or other impacts. The risk of strokes from environmental air pollution (PM2.5) has increased by 33% from 1990 to 2003. The research showed that indoor and outdoor air pollution was responsible for 30% of strokes and made this the largest risk factor. Action by governments to tax high risk factors (such as salt, sugar and tobacco) and for public health to treat high blood pressure are seen as effective ways to reduce strokes.

strokes and ap

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How Does Particulate Pollution Affect the Calcification of Arteries?

English: Coronary circulation, with coronary a...

English: Coronary circulation, with coronary arteries labeled in red text and other landmarks in blue text. This vector graphics image was originally created with Adobe Illustrator, and modified with Inkscape. 32px|alt=W3C|link=http://validator.w3.org/✓ The source code of this SVG is valid. Category:Valid SVG (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Association between air pollution and coronary artery calcification within six metropolitan areas in the USA (the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution): a longitudinal cohort study (Abstract, 1 page pdf, Joel D Kaufman, Sara D Adar, R Graham Barr,  Matthew Budoff, Gregory L Burke, Cynthia L Curl,  Martha L Daviglus,  Ana V Diez Roux, Amanda J Gassett,  David R Jacobs Jr, Prof Richard Kronmal, Timothy V Larson, Ana Navas-Acien, Casey Olives, Paul D Sampson, Lianne Sheppard, David S Siscovick,  James H Stein, Adam A Szpiro,  Karol E Watson, The Lancet, May 24, 2016

Also discussed here: Decade-long study shows how air pollution is killing you (ZME Science, May 26, 2016)

Today we review research conducted over a decade on the biological impacts of  traffic-related air pollution (PM2.5 and NOx)  on the arteries which in turn results in a higher risk of heart attack.. Results indicate  coronary calcium increased with increases in PM2.5 by 4.1 Agaston units/yr and in NOx by 4.8 Agaston units/yr. The authors suggest that increases in traffic related pollution especially in urban areas world-wide can be associated with increased cardiovascular diseases.

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Links between Particulate Pollution, Diabetes and Heart Attack Risk

The Association Between Air Pollution Exposure and Glucose and Lipids Levels (8 page pdf, Maayan Yitshak Sade, Itai Kloog, Idit F. Liberty, Joel Schwartz, and Victor Novack, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, May 24, 2016)

Also discussed here: Air pollution exposure may raise heart disease risk – Study found exposure linked to poorer blood sugar, cholesterol measures (ScienceDaily, May 24, 2016)

Today we review research into the the side effects of exposure to particulate air pollutants regarding cardiovascular disease(the leading cause of death in the USA), blood glucose levels and  cholesterol  levels. Results indicate that even a higher exposure to air pollution in the preceding three months leads to higher glucose levels and even a small change in this leads to increased risk of heart attack.

English: A graph of particulate pollution (PM ...

English: A graph of particulate pollution (PM 2.5 vs date) for sensors located in . The particulate pollution shows a seasonal variation. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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What Are the Health Impacts from Urban Building Demolitions?

Ambient exposure to coarse and fine particle emissions from building demolition (Abstract, Farhad Azarmi & Prashant Kumar , Atmospheric Environment, Apr. 22, 2016)
Today we review research into the dispersion of fine particles, including Aluminum(Al), silicate(Si) Zinc (Zn) and Magnesium (Mg), from a building demolition in London, UK, using a dispersion model that took into account windspeed and direction,  decay over time and distance from the site. Demolition of buildings is expected to increase significantly, as a result of a 60% greater urban population over the next two decades, in addition to newer urban design forms and technologies.

The exposure to the particles noted above are linked to lung and kidney (renal) diseases, greater mortality and cardiovascular and Alzheimer diseases. Results indicate that concentrations of particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM 10) downwind of the demolition site is 4 to 11 times (respectively) greater than background levels, Males near or in the site inhale more dust than females and thus have a higher health risk. One could expect similar impacts from the digging of roads and construction of tunnels and ditches for Light and Heavy Rail Transit in large cities, currently in progress and planned for cities such as Toronto and Ottawa.

demolition pm graph
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What is the Risk of Cancer from Exposure to Particulate Matter?

Cancer Mortality Risks from Long-term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particle (Abstract, Chit Ming Wong, Hilda Tsang, Hak Kan Lai, G. Neil Thomas, Kin Bong Lam, King Pan Chan, Qishi Zheng, Jon G. Ayres, Siu Yin Lee, Tai Hing Lam, and Thuan Quoc Thach. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, Feb. 22, 2016)
Also discussed here: Exposure to particulate air pollutants associated with numerous cancers (ScienceDaily, Apr. 29, 2016)

Today we review research that looks at the impact of fine particulates on health, specifically on the risk of cancer, based on 10 years of exposure to this pollution for a large sample of older people (older than 65), living in an urban environment (Hong Kong). Results indicate for every 10 µg/m³ increase in exposure, the risk of dying by cancer goes up by 35% for men (mainly in the digestive tract) and for women the risk of mortality because of breast cancer goes up by 80%. The authors caution that more research is needed to look at the link between cancer other air pollutants in combination with particulate matter.

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