Exposure to sub-chronic and long-term particulate air pollution and heart rate variability in an elderly cohort: the Normative Aging Study (10 page pdf, Irina Mordukhovich, Brent Coull, Itai Kloog, Petros Koutrakis, Pantel Vokonas and Joel Schwartz, Environmental Health, Nov. 2015).
Today we review research into the health impact of long term exposure to particulate matter, specifically, heart rate variability which is associated with increased mortality risk. Results indicate a positive association in elderly men, even when the levels of PM2.5 consistently at or below EPA standards which is typical in the city where the research took place (Boston). This is one of few studies that examine the cardiovascular impacts beyond a couple of days
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