Quantification of urban metabolism through coupling with the life cycle assessment framework: concept development and case study(15 page pdf, Benjamin Goldstein, Morten Birkved, Maj-Britt Quitzauand Michael Hauschild, Environ. Res. Lett., Jul. 26, 2013)
Today we review a more sophisticated estimate of the ecological footprint of a city using a 3rd generation urban metabolic model called UM-LCA for short. The model is applied to five cities with different characteristics: Cape Town, Toronto, Beijing, London and Hong Kong and the resulting estimates reveal large differences in per capita contributions to global warming and energy flows, showing once again the destructive outcomes from sprawled cities and private vehicle use such as Toronto and of the relative emissions from residences and industry.
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